For administrative division in , Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line through Pashtunistan, fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between Afghanistan and British India and leaving about half of the Pashtun territory under British rule. This Durand Line now forms the internationally recognized border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The 16th-century revolutionary leader Bayazid Pir Roshan of Waziristan and the 17th-century "warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak assembled Pashtun armies to fight against the Mughal Empire in the region. In those times, the eastern parts of Pashtunistan were ruled by the Mughals while the western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids. The Pashtun region first gained an autonomous status in when Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Safavids in Loy Kandahar. The Pashtuns again achieved unity under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani , founder of the Durrani dynasty , when he established the Afghan Empire in
Pakistan and Afghanistan
The Reflective Belt: An Icon Of The Global War On Terror
In anticipation of the US withdrawal, old regional rivalries — such as between India and Pakistan — mean that states are preparing once again to ensure their interests survive a potential civil war. While the Taliban have historically enjoyed Pakistani patronage, India has empowered alternative factions and now lends support to the fledgling Afghan democracy project. Pakistan, a country at the forefront of mainstreaming the Taliban, continues to hold significant sway over the group and the shuras that dictate its ideology. New Delhi chose a different route by refusing to officially negotiate with the Taliban, putting its weight behind the democratically elected government of Afghan President Ashraf Ghani. Yet the tussle between New Delhi and Islamabad over influence in Afghanistan also stems from their different regional strategies. India — along with other countries like Iran — formerly supported the Northern Alliance, a multi-ethnic coalition then led by Ahmad Shah Massoud, a Tajik politician and military leader.
Pakistan: Taliban donations, recruitment on the rise
Over the last two decades, the United States injected millions of dollars and deployed over , troops aimed at counterinsurgency and planting the seeds of liberal values and democracy in Afghanistan. But liberal values did not blossom in the society, nor did democratic processes take root in U. This legacy has put the Biden administration in an awkward position: It must decide whether to support the liberal values in the proposed political settlement or ignore them and get out. Because Afghanistan lacks both an organic civil society and institutions that could shape the political settlement in favor of a democratic dispensation, the United States—if it chooses not to cut and run—now has the chance to push for a democratic sphere that would actually allow Afghans to shape their political fate. President George W.
By Angry Staff Officer October 26, Past conflicts have had iconic symbols associated with them. Vietnam has the UH-1 Huey helicopter. When people ask me what will be the symbol for the Global War on Terrorism, I reply with an obvious option: the reflective belt. From Balad, Iraq, to Bagram, Afghanistan, the reflective belt has shone the way for forces of freedom, justice, and the American way.